Somalia und im Norden des Sudan – ist die Praxis fast flächendeckend verbreitet: Über 90 % der Frauen zwischen 15 und 49 Jahren sind dort beschnitten. In Somalia ist die «pharaonische» Beschneidung noch heute üblich. Nirgendwo werden so viele Mädchen beschnitten wie in Somalia. Frauen, die nicht beschnitten wurden, sind in der somalischen Gesellschaft schwerwiegenden Stigmatisierungen, wie geringeren Heiratschancen ausgesetzt.
Weibliche GenitalverstümmelungIn Äthiopien und Nigeria werden die Mädchen im Alter von sieben bis acht Tagen beschnitten, in Somalia, im Sudan und in Ägypten dagegen erst mit fünf bis zehn. Was ist weibliche Genitalverstümmelung? In welchen Ländern werden Mädchen beschnitten? Fakten & Zahlen zu der grausamen Tradition - und wie wir helfen. Nach Angaben des Kinderhilfswerks UNICEF weist Ifrahs Heimatland Somalia weltweit eine der höchsten Raten weiblicher Beschneidungen.
Somalia Beschneidung Die 17-jährige Istaahil Mohammed Jama wurde mit neun beschnitten. (Bild: David Signer) VideoDie Scharia - Allahs brutales Gesetz?
FGM markiert in Somalia den Übergang von der Kindheit zum Frausein und wird in der Regel von traditionellen Beschneiderinnen bzw.
Guddaays ausgeführt. Seit der Unabhängigkeit Somalias wird weibliche Genitalverstümmelung zunehmend medikalisiert und entsprechend häufiger von medizinischem Personal ausgeführt.
Eins der populärsten Argumente für FGM ist religiös begründet. Trotz wiederholter Erklärungen der religiösen Führer des Landes, dass der Islam seine Töchter keineswegs zu FGM verpflichte — vielmehr stehe die weibliche Genitalverstümmelung sogar im Widerspruch zum Islam — setzen die Menschen die Praktik FGM im Namen des Islams fort.
Auch Angehörige anderer Glaubensrichtungen sehen in den jeweiligen Religionen die Verpflichtung zur weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung. Frauen, die nicht beschnitten wurden, sind in der somalischen Gesellschaft schwerwiegenden Stigmatisierungen, wie geringeren Heiratschancen ausgesetzt.
Diese sozialen Normen greifen so tief, dass sich die Mütter sogar, wenn sie über die Folgen von FGM aufgeklärt sind, für die Genitalverstümmelung ihrer Töchter entscheiden, um die soziale Integration und die wirtschaftliche Sicherheit ihrer Töchter durch Heirat nicht zu gefährden.
In the early s, a number of interim federal administrations were created. The Transitional National Government TNG was established in , followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government TFG in , which reestablished the Somali Armed Forces.
The ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups, such as Al-Shabaab , which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region.
By mid, the insurgents had lost most of the territory they had seized, and a search for more permanent democratic institutions began.
Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic period. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic -speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat "original homeland" in the Nile Valley ,  or the Near East.
The Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back approximately 5, years, and has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows.
The rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1, to 3, BCE. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2, years old.
Ancient pyramidical structures, mausoleums , ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall , are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula.
An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari , during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati.
In the classical era , the Macrobians , who may have been ancestral to Somalis, established a powerful tribal kingdom that ruled large parts of modern Somalia.
They were reputed for their longevity and wealth, and were said to be the "tallest and handsomest of all men". According to Herodotus' account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II , upon his conquest of Egypt in BC, sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission.
The Macrobian ruler, who was elected based on his stature and beauty, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to draw it, they would have the right to invade his country; but until then, they should thank the gods that the Macrobians never decided to invade their empire.
From there, it spread to Egypt and the Maghreb. During the classical period, the Barbara city-states also known as sesea of Mosylon , Opone , Mundus , Isis , Malao , Avalites , Essina , Nikon and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic Egypt , Ancient Greece , Phoenicia , Parthian Persia , Saba , the Nabataean Kingdom , and the Roman Empire.
They used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy, Arab and Somali merchants agreed with the Romans to bar Indian ships from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula  to protect the interests of Somali and Arab merchants in the lucrative commerce between the Red and Mediterranean Seas.
The source of the cinnamon and other spices is said to have been the best-kept secret of Arab and Somali merchants in their trade with the Roman and Greek world; the Romans and Greeks believed the source to have been the Somali peninsula.
Islam was introduced to the area early on by the first Muslims of Mecca fleeing prosecution during the first Hejira with Masjid al-Qiblatayn in Zeila being built before the Qiblah towards Mecca.
It is one of the oldest mosques in Africa. It was thus flanked to the south by the Ajuran Empire and to the west by the Abyssinian Empire.
In , the Zeila-based King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting Abyssinian emperor Amda Seyon I 's march toward the city.
Adal's headquarters were again relocated the following century, this time southward to Harar. From this new capital, Adal organised an effective army led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi Ahmad "Gurey" or "Gran"; both meaning "the left-handed" that invaded the Abyssinian empire.
During the Ajuran Sultanate period, the sultanates and republics of Merca , Mogadishu , Barawa , Hobyo and their respective ports flourished and had a lucrative foreign commerce, with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia ,  Persia, Egypt, Portugal, and as far away as China.
Vasco da Gama , who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses several storeys high and large palaces in its centre, in addition to many mosques with cylindrical minarets.
In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in modern-day India sailed to Mogadishu with cloth and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory.
Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants.
Trading relations were established with Malacca in the 15th century,  with cloth, ambergris and porcelain being the main commodities of the trade.
In the early modern period, successor states to the Adal Sultanate and Ajuran Sultanate began to flourish in Somalia. These included the Warsangali Sultanate, the Bari Dynasties , the Sultanate of the Geledi Gobroon dynasty , the Majeerteen Sultanate Migiurtinia , and the Sultanate of Hobyo Obbia.
They continued the tradition of castle-building and seaborne trade established by previous Somali empires.
Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim , the third Sultan of the House of Gobroon, started the golden age of the Gobroon Dynasty. His army came out victorious during the Bardheere Jihad, which restored stability in the region and revitalized the East African ivory trade.
He also received presents from and had cordial relations with the rulers of neighbouring and distant kingdoms such as the Omani, Witu and Yemeni Sultans.
Sultan Ibrahim's son Ahmed Yusuf succeeded him and was one of the most important figures in 19th-century East Africa, receiving tribute from Omani governors and creating alliances with important Muslim families on the East African coast.
In northern Somalia, the Gerad Dynasty conducted trade with Yemen and Persia and competed with the merchants of the Bari Dynasty.
The Gerads and the Bari Sultans built impressive palaces and fortresses and had close relations with many different empires in the Near East.
In the late 19th century, after the Berlin Conference of , European powers began the Scramble for Africa , which inspired the Dervish leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan to rally support from across the Horn of Africa and begin one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever.
In several of his poems and speeches, Hassan emphasized that the British "have destroyed our religion and made our children their children" and that the Christian Ethiopians in league with the British were bent upon plundering the political and religious freedom of the Somali nation.
Hassan issued a religious ordinance stipulating that any Somali national who did not accept the goal of unity of Somalis, Greater Somalia and would not fight under his leadership would be considered to be kafir , or gaal.
He soon acquired weapons from the Ottoman Empire, Sudan, other Islamic and Arabian countries, and appointed ministers and advisers to administer different areas or sectors of Somalia.
In addition, he gave a clarion call for Somali unity and independence, in the process organizing his forces. Hassan's Dervish movement had an essentially military character, and the Dervish revolt was fashioned on the model of a Salihiya brotherhood.
It was characterized by a rigid hierarchy and centralization. Though Hassan threatened to drive the Christians into the sea, he executed the first attack by launching his first major military offensive with his 1, Dervish equipped with 20 modern rifles on the British soldiers stationed in the region.
He repulsed the British in four expeditions and had relations with the Central Powers of the Ottomans and the Germans.
In , the Dervish movement collapsed after intensive aerial bombardments by Britain, and Dervish territories were subsequently turned into a protectorate.
The dawn of fascism in the early s heralded a change of strategy for Italy, as the north-eastern sultanates were soon to be forced within the boundaries of La Grande Somalia according to the plan of Fascist Italy.
With the arrival of Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi on 15 December , things began to change for that part of Somaliland known as Italian Somaliland.
Italy had access to these areas under the successive protection treaties, but not direct rule. The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory.
Fascist Italy , under Benito Mussolini , attacked Abyssinia Ethiopia in , with an aim to colonize it. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations , but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia.
On 3 August , Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somaliland , and by 14 August, succeeded in taking Berbera from the British.
A British force, including troops from several African countries, launched the campaign in January from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland.
By February, most of Italian Somaliland was captured and in March, British Somaliland was retaken from the sea. The forces of the British Empire operating in Somaliland comprised the three divisions of South African, West African, and East African troops.
They were assisted by Somali forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq , Dhulbahante , and Warsangali clans prominently participating.
The number of Italian Somalis began to decline after World War II, with fewer than 10, remaining in Following World War II, Britain retained control of both British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland as protectorates.
In , during the Potsdam Conference , the United Nations granted Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland as the Trust Territory of Somaliland , on the condition—first proposed by the Somali Youth League SYL and other nascent Somali political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali HDMS and the Somali National League SNL —that Somalia achieve independence within ten years.
To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in Western political education and self-government.
These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have. Although in the s British colonial officials attempted, through various administrative development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated.
The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would later cause serious difficulties integrating the two parts.
Meanwhile, in , under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis,  the British returned the Haud an important Somali grazing area that was presumably protected by British treaties with the Somalis in and and the Somali Region to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against possible advances by the French.
Britain included the conditional provision that the Somali residents would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area.
This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over. A referendum was held in neighbouring Djibouti then known as French Somaliland in , on the eve of Somalia's independence in , to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France.
The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans.
The majority of those who voted 'no' were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi , Vice President of the Government Council.
Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. On 1 July , the two territories united to form the Somali Republic , albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.
On 20 July and through a popular referendum , was ratified popularly by the people of Somalia under Italian trusteeship, But most of the people from the former Somaliland Protectorate didn't participated the referendum, due to the marginalization graveness made on their rights of power sharing of the unity government.
Egal would later become the President of the autonomous Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia. On 15 October , while paying a visit to the northern town of Las Anod , Somalia's then President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards.
The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre , who at the time commanded the army. Alongside Barre, the Supreme Revolutionary Council SRC that assumed power after President Sharmarke's assassination was led by Lieutenant Colonel Salaad Gabeyre Kediye and Chief of Police Jama Korshel.
Kediye officially held the title "Father of the Revolution", and Barre shortly afterwards became the head of the SRC. The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate.
In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab world , eventually joining the Arab League in In July , Barre's SRC disbanded itself and established in its place the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party SRSP , a one-party government based on scientific socialism and Islamic tenets.
The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by adapting Marxist precepts to local circumstances.
Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production.
While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration's overall direction was essentially communist.
In July , the Ogaden War broke out after Barre's government used a plea for national unity to justify an aggressive incorporation of the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia , along with the rich agricultural lands of south-eastern Ethiopia, infrastructure, and strategically important areas as far north as Djibouti.
After the siege of Harar, a massive unprecedented Soviet intervention consisting of 20, Cuban forces and several thousand Soviet experts came to the aid of Ethiopia's communist Derg regime.
By , the Somali troops were ultimately pushed out of the Ogaden. This shift in support by the Soviet Union motivated the Barre government to seek allies elsewhere.
It eventually settled on the Soviets' Cold War arch-rival, the United States , which had been courting the Somali government for some time.
All in all, Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and later partnership with the United States enabled it to build the largest army in Africa.
A new constitution was promulgated in under which elections for a People's Assembly were held. However, Barre's Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party politburo continued to rule.
Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship. The regime was weakened further in the s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished.
The government became increasingly authoritarian , and resistance movements , encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War.
Among the militia groups were the Somali Salvation Democratic Front SSDF , United Somali Congress USC , Somali National Movement SNM and the Somali Patriotic Movement SPM , together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement SDM , the Somali Democratic Alliance SDA and the Somali Manifesto Group SMG.
The moral authority of Barre's government was gradually eroded, as many Somalis became disillusioned with life under military rule.
By the mids, resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country.
Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas, especially in the northern regions.
The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative centre of Hargeisa , a Somali National Movement SNM stronghold, among the targeted areas in During , in the capital city of Mogadishu, the residents were prohibited from gathering publicly in groups greater than three or four.
Fuel shortages caused long lines of cars at petrol stations. Inflation had driven the price of pasta ordinary dry Italian noodles, a staple at that time to five U.
The price of khat , imported daily from Kenya, was also five U. Paper currency notes were of such low value that several bundles were needed to pay for simple restaurant meals.
A thriving black market existed in the centre of the city as banks experienced shortages of local currency for exchange.
At night, the city of Mogadishu lay in darkness. Close monitoring of all visiting foreigners was in effect. Harsh exchange control regulations were introduced to prevent export of foreign currency.
Although no travel restrictions were placed on foreigners, photographing many locations was banned.
During daytime in Mogadishu, the appearance of any government military force was extremely rare. Alleged late-night operations by government authorities, however, included "disappearances" of individuals from their homes.
In , the Barre administration was ousted by a coalition of clan-based opposition groups, backed by Ethiopia's then-ruling Derg regime and Libya.
Although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognized by any foreign government.
Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ouster of Barre's regime. In the south, armed factions led by USC commanders General Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed , in particular, clashed as each sought to exert authority over the capital.
Aidid boycotted the first meeting in protest. Due to the legitimacy bestowed on Muhammad by the Djibouti conference, he was subsequently recognized by the international community as the new President of Somalia.
Djibouti, Egypt , Saudi Arabia and Italy were among the countries that officially extended recognition to Muhammad's administration. Power was instead vied with other faction leaders in the southern half of Somalia and with autonomous sub-national entities in the north.
In the early s, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, Somalia began to be characterized as a " failed state ".
Rotberg similarly posits that the state failure had preceded the ouster of the Barre administration.
UN Security Council Resolution and UN Security Council Resolution led to the creation of UNOSOM I , the first mission to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government.
United Nations Security Council Resolution was unanimously passed on 3 December , which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States.
Forming the Unified Task Force UNITAF , the alliance was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN.
Landing in , the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two-year United Nations Operation in Somalia II UNOSOM II primarily in the south. Aidid saw UNOSOM II as a threat to his power and in June his militia attacked Pakistan Army troops, attached to UNOSOM II, see Somalia March to February in Mogadishu inflicting over 80 casualties.
Fighting escalated until 19 American troops and more than 1, civilians and militia were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October In August , Aidid was killed in Mogadishu.
Former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali and Ahmedou Ould Abdallah , UN special envoy to Somalia have referred to the killing of civilians during the conflict as a "genocide".
Under the auspices of the UN, AU, Arab League and IGAD, a series of additional national reconciliation conferences were subsequently held as part of the peace process.
Following the outbreak of the civil war, many of Somalia's residents left in search of asylum. According to the UNHCR , there were around , registered refugees from the country in neighboring states as of A consequence of the collapse of governmental authority that accompanied the civil war was the emergence of piracy in the unpatrolled Indian Ocean waters off of the coast of Somalia.
The phenomenon partly arose as an attempt by local fishermen to protect their livelihood from illegal fishing by foreigners.
The Transitional National Government TNG was established in April—May at the Somalia National Peace Conference SNPC held in Arta, Djibouti.
Abdiqasim Salad Hassan was selected as the President of the nation's new Transitional National Government TNG , an interim administration formed to guide Somalia to its third permanent republican government.
Its mandate ended at the same time. On 10 October , legislators elected Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as the first President of the Transitional Federal Government TFG , the Transitional National Government's successor.
The Transitional Federal Government TFG was the internationally recognised government of Somalia until 20 August , when its tenure officially ended.
The Transitional Federal Government officially comprised the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch.
The government was headed by the President of Somalia , to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister. However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively.
In , the Islamic Courts Union ICU , an Islamist organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari'a.
The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops , African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule.
On 8 January , as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a former colonel in the Somali Army and decorated war hero, entered Mogadishu with the Ethiopian military support for the first time since being elected to office.
The government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in that the federal government controlled most of the country.
Following this defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab , regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia.
Throughout and , Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia.
At the end of , the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. By January , Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an under-equipped African Union peacekeeping force to assist the Transitional Federal Government's troops.
Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community, President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country.
Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.
On 29 December , Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had been mandated to do.
Between 31 May and 9 June , representatives of Somalia's federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia ARS group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah.
The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation.
Parliament was subsequently expanded to seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed , the former ARS chairman, to office.
President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke , the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke , as the nation's new Prime Minister.
With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February to assume full control of the southern half of the country.
To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a , a moderate Sufi militia.
As a truce, in March , Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement Shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.
During the coalition government's brief tenure and one year afterwards, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, the Fund For Peace 's Fragile States Index FSI; formerly known as the Failed States Index listed Somalia on top for six consecutive years between and On 14 October , diplomat Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed , also known as Farmajo, was appointed the new Prime Minister of Somalia.
The former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned the month before following a protracted dispute with President Sharif over a proposed draft constitution.
Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation's upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government's Transitional Federal Tasks.
In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions. According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics.
Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers required the Premier's consent.
In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place. On 19 June , Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned from his position as Prime Minister of Somalia.
Part of the controversial Kampala Accord's conditions, the agreement saw the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August In October , a coordinated operation, Operation Linda Nchi between the Somali and Kenyan militaries and multinational forces began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia.
As part of the official "Roadmap for the End of Transition", a political process that provided clear benchmarks leading toward the formation of permanent democratic institutions in Somalia, the Transitional Federal Government's interim mandate ended on 20 August The Federal Government of Somalia , the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war, was later established in August By , Somalia was no longer at the top of the fragile states index , dropping to second place behind South Sudan.
In October , more than people were killed by twin bomb explosions in Somalia's capital city Mogadishu. Somalia is officially divided into eighteen regions gobollada , singular gobol ,  which in turn are subdivided into districts.
The regions are:. Northern Somalia is now de facto divided up among the autonomous regions of Puntland which considers itself an autonomous state and Somaliland a self-declared but unrecognized sovereign state.
In central Somalia, Galmudug is another regional entity that emerged just south of Puntland. Jubaland in the far south is a fourth autonomous region within the federation.
The Federal Parliament is tasked with selecting the ultimate number and boundaries of the autonomous regional states officially Federal Member States within the Federal Republic of Somalia.
Somalia is bordered by Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west.
The country claims a border with Djibouti through the disputed territory of Somaliland to the northwest.
Strategically located at the mouth of the Bab el Mandeb gateway to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal , the country occupies the tip of a region that, due to its resemblance on the map to a rhinoceros ' horn, is commonly referred to as the Horn of Africa.
Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus , plains and highlands. Somalia has several islands and archipelagos on its coast, including the Bajuni Islands and the Saad ad-Din Archipelago : see islands of Somalia.
Somalia contains seven terrestrial ecoregions: Ethiopian montane forests , Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic , Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets , Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands , Hobyo grasslands and shrublands , Somali montane xeric woodlands , and East African mangroves.
In the north, a scrub-covered, semi-desert plain referred as the Guban lies parallel to the Gulf of Aden littoral. With a width of twelve kilometres in the west to as little as two kilometres in the east, the plain is bisected by watercourses that are essentially beds of dry sand except during the rainy seasons.
When the rains arrive, the Guban's low bushes and grass clumps transform into lush vegetation. Cal Madow is a mountain range in the northeastern part of the country.
The Ogo's western plateau, in turn, gradually merges into the Haud , an important grazing area for livestock. Somalia has only two permanent rivers, the Jubba and Shabele , both of which begin in the Ethiopian Highlands.
These rivers mainly flow southwards, with the Jubba River entering the Indian Ocean at Kismayo. The Shabele River at one time apparently used to enter the sea near Merca , but now reaches a point just southwest of Mogadishu.
After that, it consists of swamps and dry reaches before finally disappearing in the desert terrain east of Jilib , near the Jubba River.
Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 1. From onward, a massive tree-planting campaign on a nationwide scale was introduced by the Siad Barre government to halt the advance of thousands of acres of wind-driven sand dunes that threatened to engulf towns, roads and farm land.
This educational effort led in to the so-called "Somalia proposal" and a decision by the Somali government to adhere to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES , which established for the first time a worldwide ban on the trade of elephant ivory.
Later, Fatima Jibrell , a prominent Somali environmental activist, mounted a successful campaign to salvage old-growth forests of acacia trees in the northeastern part of Somalia.
In , Horn Relief coordinated a peace march in the northeastern Puntland region of Somalia to put an end to the so-called "charcoal wars".
As a result of Jibrell's lobbying and education efforts, the Puntland government in prohibited the exportation of charcoal. Following the massive tsunami of December , there have also emerged allegations that after the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in the late s, Somalia's long, remote shoreline was used as a dump site for the disposal of toxic waste.
The huge waves that battered northern Somalia after the tsunami are believed to have stirred up tons of nuclear and toxic waste that might have been dumped illegally in the country by foreign firms.
According to reports by the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP , the waste has resulted in far higher than normal cases of respiratory infections, mouth ulcers and bleeding, abdominal haemorrhages and unusual skin infections among many inhabitants of the areas around the northeastern towns of Hobyo and Benadir on the Indian Ocean coast — diseases consistent with radiation sickness.
UNEP adds that the situation along the Somali coastline poses a very serious environmental hazard not only in Somalia, but also in the eastern Africa sub-region.
Due to Somalia's proximity to the equator , there is not much seasonal variation in its climate. Hot conditions prevail year-round along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
Although the coastal regions are hot and humid throughout the year, the hinterland is typically dry and hot. There are four main seasons around which pastoral and agricultural life revolve, and these are dictated by shifts in the wind patterns.
From December to March is the Jilal , the harshest dry season of the year. The main rainy season, referred to as the Gu , lasts from April to June.
This period is characterized by the southwest monsoons, which rejuvenate the pasture land, especially the central plateau, and briefly transform the desert into lush vegetation.
From July to September is the second dry season, the Xagaa pronounced "Hagaa". The Dayr , which is the shortest rainy season, lasts from October to December.
Somalia contains a variety of mammals due to its geographical and climatic diversity. It also has a large population of the dromedary camel. Somalia is home to around species of birds.
Of these, eight are endemic, one has been introduced by humans, and one is rare or accidental.
Fourteen species are globally threatened. Birds species found exclusively in the country include the Somali Pigeon , Alaemon hamertoni Alaudidae , Lesser Hoopoe-Lark, Heteromirafra archeri Alaudidae , Archer's Lark, Mirafra ashi , Ash's Bushlark, Mirafra somalica Alaudidae , Somali Bushlark, Spizocorys obbiensis Alaudidae , Obbia Lark, Carduelis johannis Fringillidae , and Warsangli Linnet.
Somalia's territorial waters are prime fishing grounds for highly migratory marine species, such as tuna. A narrow but productive continental shelf contains several demersal fish and crustacean species.
There are roughly species of reptiles. Of these, almost half live in the northern areas. Reptiles endemic to Somalia include the Hughes' saw-scaled viper , the Southern Somali garter snake, a racer Platyceps messanai , a diadem snake Spalerosophis josephscorteccii , the Somali sand boa , the angled worm lizard , a spiny-tailed lizard Uromastyx macfadyeni , Lanza's agama, a gecko Hemidactylus granchii , the Somali semaphore gecko , and a sand lizard Mesalina or Eremias.
A colubrid snake Aprosdoketophis andreonei and Haacke-Greer's skink Haackgreerius miopus are endemic species.
Somalia is a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The President of Somalia is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces and selects a Prime Minister to act as head of government.
The Federal Parliament of Somalia is the national parliament of Somalia. The bicameral National Legislature consists of the House of the People lower house and the Senate upper house , whose members are elected to serve four-year terms.
The parliament elects the President, Speaker of Parliament and Deputy Speakers. It also has the authority to pass and veto laws. On 10 September , parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the new President of Somalia.
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UNICEF - Somalia Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Somalia World Health Organization - Somalia. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Ioan M. Lewis See All Contributors Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London.
Author of Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Culture and others. See Article History. Fishermen at the port of Mogadishu, Somalia.
Britannica Quiz. Geography of Africa Quiz. Where is Serengeti National Park? What is Rhodesia called today? Find out by taking this quiz about Africa.
The Republic of Somalia experienced fragmentation in the s: the self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland asserted its independence from Somalia in , and the Puntland State of Somalia declared itself an autonomous region of Somalia in Neither is internationally recognized.
Die Folgen sind Entzündungen, die Ansteckung mit Krankheiten wie Hepatitis, Schmerzen beim Urinieren, im Extremfall starke Blutungen, Zysten und Fisteln.
Das Lustempfinden beim Sex ist vermindert, oft ist Geschlechtsverkehr nur unter Schmerzen möglich. Spätere Komplikationen bei der Geburt sind häufig.
Es gibt Ärzte, die mit nichts anderem beschäftigt sind als dem Kurieren von Beschneidungsfolgen. Nach der Geburt ihres zweiten Kindes entwickelten sich schmerzhafte Fisteln im Unterleib.
Niemand nahm ihr Leiden ernst, für einen Besuch im Spital fehlten die Mittel. Man hatte ihre zugewachsene Vagina erst kurz vor der Geburt geöffnet, nach der Niederkunft wurde sie wieder fast vollständig verschlossen.
Aber der Sex war noch qualvoller als vorher. Sie hatte vier weitere Kinder, jedes Mal wurde ihre Vagina aufgeschnitten und nachher wieder zugenäht. Mit jedem Mal nahmen die Schmerzen zu, aber sie wusste nicht, weshalb.
Auch litt sie wegen der Fisteln an Inkontinenz, was sie zu verheimlichen versuchte. Erst nach dem sechsten Kind konnte sie sich im Rahmen eines Projekts von Save the Children untersuchen und operieren lassen.
Auch bekam sie eine Starthilfe für einen eigenen Laden, den sie nun führt. Ihre Töchter hat sie nicht beschneiden lassen. Ihr Mann, der keine Arbeit hat, war einverstanden.
Nur die drei ältesten Kinder gehen zur Schule, für die andern reicht das Geld nicht. Sie möchte gerne noch mehr Kinder. Die jährige Luul Jama Samatar hat zusammen mit ein paar andern Frauen in Garowe, der Hauptstadt von Puntland, eine NGO namens Kaiwo gegründet, die sich dem Kampf gegen die Beschneidung widmet.
Schon der Ausdruck macht klar, wo sie steht. Früher folgte sie einfach der Tradition. Sie änderte ihre Ansicht, als ihre Nichte auf dem Land an den Blutungen in der Folge einer Beschneidung starb.
Ihre eigenen Töchter hatte sie alle beschneiden lassen, was sie heute bereut. Aber sie wünscht, dass ihre Enkelinnen nicht beschnitten werden, und sie hat darüber auch mit ihren Töchtern gesprochen.
Diese sind damit einverstanden. Mit ihrer Organisation will sie die Bevölkerung für das Thema sensibilisieren. Sie wird unterstützt von ihrem Mann, einem traditionellen Clanältesten.
Sie erinnert daran, wie die Bevölkerung vor ein paar Jahren, als die Piraten in Puntland ihr Unwesen trieben, gegen diese zusammenstand und zum Beispiel niemandem ein Haus vermietete, der zu ihnen gehörte.
Sie fragt sich, warum das heute nicht wieder möglich sei, dieses Mal gegen die Beschneidung. Ein weiteres interessantes Detail erwähnt sie: In Puntland gibt es eine Bevölkerungsgruppe, die ihre Mädchen nicht beschneidet.
Sie sind auch Muslime und werden Xer genannt oder auch Timo Weyn, was langes Haar bedeutet und auf die besondere Frisur der Männer verweist.
Die Mitglieder dieser Gemeinschaft heiraten nur untereinander. Erst vor kurzem, als über das Thema Mädchenbeschneidung immer häufiger diskutiert wurde, gingen die Xer an die Öffentlichkeit.
In Puntland spricht sich auch die Regierung gegen die Mädchenbeschneidung aus. Amina Osman, die Ministerin für Frauen- und Familienangelegenheiten, macht sich die völlige Abschaffung zum Ziel.
In der Praxis sei es schwierig, eine klare Trennlinie zu ziehen, sagt sie. Aus dem gleichen Grund ist sie auch gegen eine Medikalisierung der Beschneidung, wie sie bei der Knabenbeschneidung stattgefunden hat.
Oft muss sie sich auch gegen den Vorwurf wehren, der Kampf gegen die Mädchenbeschneidung sei vom Westen initiiert. Selbst wenn sie Schützenhilfe von internationalen Organisationen wie Save the Children erhalte, komme der Widerstand gegen die Verstümmelung erst einmal aus der eigenen Gesellschaft.
Was ihr auch am Herzen liegt: Die Beschneidung zerrütte die Beziehung zwischen Müttern und Töchtern. Oft seien es die Grossmütter, die Druck ausübten, dass man der Tradition treu bleibe.
Die Mütter befänden sich in einer Zwickmühle zwischen Mitleid mit ihren Töchtern und Gehorsam gegenüber der Überlieferung.
Ebenso unmissverständlich drückt sich der Justizminister Awil Hamid Mohammed aus. Deshalb hat Puntland ein Verbot ausgearbeitet. Das Kabinett hat das neue Gesetz bereits verabschiedet, nun kommt es vor das Parlament.
Das hielt auch eine entsprechende Fatwa klar fest.Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia is a sovereign country in the Horn of scottcurrie-percussion.com is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland. Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and scottcurrie-percussion.comg code: + Oft seien es die Grossmütter, die Druck ausübten, dass man der Tradition treu bleibe. JuniS. Wundheilung Beschleunigen schaffte sie es doch noch, in letzter Minute. London: Zed Books ; 25—8. Main articles: Somali Architecture Somalia Beschneidung Sesea. Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century: Archaeology. The Judiciary of Somalia is defined by the Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia. Somalia Country Profile Somalia Verbreitung Somalia weist weltweit die höchste Rate von weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung FGM Con Calma Cover. Archived from the original on 22 January Die jüngste Studie von UNICEF hat unter Mitwirkung von somalischen NGOs ergeben, dass in den nördlichen Teilen Somalias — Puntland und Somaliland — die Verbreitung von FGM abgenommen hat. Retrieved 18 October Aber sie wünscht, dass ihre Enkelinnen nicht beschnitten werden, und sie hat darüber auch mit Frankfurt Vs Salzburg Töchtern gesprochen. During the classical period, the Barbara city-states also known as sesea of MosylonOponeMundusIsisMalaoAvalitesEssinaNikon and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic EgyptAncient GreecePhoeniciaYoutube Ab 18 PersiaSabathe Nabataean Kingdomand the Roman Empire. Non-Aligned Movement. Barendse If endorsed, the President appoints the candidate as a Film Muttertag of the Constitutional Court.